Singer Needlebars and a Needleclamp Darning Spring

Last year I obtained a darning spring which is fixed in place of the needleclamp. It does not carry any part number but came to me amongst a collection of other Singer attachments in a box marked as being for a Singer 66. I had hoped to be able to use it on my main machine, a 201k but couldn’t get it over the needlebar. Neither would it fit my 222k nor my 15k. I didn’t have much luck online discovering whether the model 66 (and presumably 99) had a different needlebar to the 201k, the 15k and the Featherweights so now that I have discovered the answer for myself I am anxious to share it. The spring will fit a 28k and a 99k.

The important difference in the needlebars lies not in their diameter but in the design of the needleclamp and how it affixes to the lower end of the needlebar.

The 201k, 222k and 15k all have a needleclamp into which rests the final thread guide and the end of the needlebar is designed to accommodate this. See fig 1.

The 99k uses a much simpler design in which a longer portion of the lower end is milled away to a smaller diameter and it is this which will accept the needleclamp style of darning spring (fig 4). Fig 5 shows all three together.

I shall properly review its capabilities in a future, planned blog post covering darning/free motion embroidery methods, including a number of different feet and attachments including the Stoppax darning spring which I have recently obtained.

Fig 1 – Needlebar style of the 201k and 15k (needle side).

Fig 2 – Needlebar of a 99k (needle side).

Fig 3 – Needlebar of 99k (screw side).

Fig 4 – Darning Spring (showing circular cross section)

Fig 5 – L-R: Darning Spring, 99k needleclamp, 201k needleclamp.

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Vintage Machine Embroidery – Singer Instructions for Art Embroidery and Lace Work (1941); Singer Instructions for Art Embroidery (1911)

As I seem to be collecting more and more books these days I have plenty of material to review so this is the first in what I hope will be a series of book reviews, all relating to sewing, needlecraft or pattern cutting and as you would expect, there is a definite slant towards the vintage. There is understandably a great deal of overlap in subject matter in the many books published by different companies, especially evident in the various large grasscloth covered tomes published over the middle decades of the twentieth century so I will seek also to stress each ones particular merits over its peers and hopefully guide the reader towards the one which represents the best investment for them.

Of the two books mentioned in the title, given the similarity in their own titles the reader could be forgiven for assuming that the former is a reworking of the latter. This is partly true but the later title is by no means a simple republication of the same work, even with additional chapters for lace work. It is a total reworking, with different photographs, different text and different examples altogether.

The earlier work has 93 pages whilst the later book has 225 and the indices are given here for comparison.

The index of the 1911 edition:
General Instructions
Shaded Embroidery (Flowers)

Art Embroidery

Raised Embroidery

Scallops, Beadstitch, Cording

Venetian Embroidery

Seed Stitch

English or Eyelet Embroidery

Shaded Embroidery on Velvet or Plush

Gold Thread Embroidery

First Openwork Stitches
Filet, Netting or Open Mesh Embroidery

Hedebo Embroidery

Richelieu Lace

Point Venise

Renaissance Lace

English Point

Duchess Lace

Brussels Lace

Novelty Lace

Point Lace
Cluny Lace

Hemstitching

Mexican Drawn-Work

Mexican Drawn-Work (Second Part)

Teneriffe Wheels

Velvet Appliqué

Net Appliqué

The index of the 1941 edition:
Foreword
General Rules

Preparation of the Machine

Correct Posture of the Operator

Operation of the Machine

Embroidery by Electricity

How to Trace Designs

Preparation of the Work

Rules for the Size of Stitches

Rule No. 1, Stitching of Drawn Work

Rule No. 2, Cording

Tensions

Embroidery Work with Heavy Thread

Table of Stitches Per Half Inch Indicating the Threads and Needles Most Suitable

First Course of Study
Lesson 1: First Stitches

Lesson 2: Cording

Lesson 3: English or Eyelet Embroidery

Lesson 4: First Openwork Stitches

Lesson 5: Richelieu Work (Cut Work)

Lessons 6-7: Hemstitching

Lesson 8: Scalloping and Raised Embroidery – Satin Stitch

Lesson 9: Letters and Monograms

Lessons 10-11: Fancy Stitches on White Goods

Lesson 12: Appliqué on Net

Lesson 13: English Lace – Braid Appliqué

Lesson 14: Brussels Lace

Lesson 15: Filet Lace

Lesson 16: Milan Lace

Lesson 17: Bone Lace First Appliqué

Lesson 18: Embroidery on Net

Lessons 19-20: Needlepoint Lace & Venetian Richelieu Lace

Lesson 21: Smyrna Embroidery

Lessons 22-23: Venetian Lace – First Stitches

Lessons 24-25: Shaded Embroidery

Second Course of Study
Lesson 26: Teneriffe Wheels

Lesson 27-28: Mexican Drawn Work

Lesson 29: Hedebo Embroidery

Lesson 30: Velvet Appliqué

Lesson 31: Battenberg Embroidery

Lesson 32: Appliqué of Cretonne

Lesson 33: Blond Lace

Lesson 34: Valenciennes Lace

Lesson 35: Cluny Lace

Lesson 36: Fancy Lace

Lessons 37-38: English Point Lace

Lessons 39-40: Artistic Embroidery on White Goods

Lessons 41-42: Renaissance Lace

Lessons 43-44: Fancy Embroidery Points on White Goods

Lesson 45: Bone Lace – Insertions

Lesson 46: Fancy Lace Edging

Lesson 47: Bead Work

Lesson 48: Rococo Embroidery

Lesson 49: Venetian Embroidery

Lesson 50: Imitation Velvet Embroidery

Third Course of Study
Lesson 51: Crochet Lace

Lessons 52-53: Duchess Lace

Lesson 54: Bruges Lace

Lessons 55-56: Spanish Point Lace

Lessons 57-58: Genoese Net

Lesson 59: Malta Lace

Lesson 60: Bone Lace Edging

Lesson 61: Guipiur Lace

Lesson 62: Venetian Lace

Lessons 63-64: Venetian Lace Faces and Figures

Lesson 65: Cross Stitch

Lesson 66: Raised Embroidery on Mesh

Lesson 67-68: Embroidery with Gold or Silver Thread and Persian Embroidery

Lesson 69: Chinese Embroidery

Lesson 70: Wool Embroidery on Net

Lesson 71: Artistic Shaded Embroidery

Lesson 72: Granite Stitch – Round Stitch

Lesson 73: Penelope Embroidery

Lesson 74: Shaded Embroidery on Velvet or Plush

Lesson 75: Italian Filet

Fourth Course of Study
Lesson 76: Frivolite Lace

Lesson 77: English Lace, Making the Braid

Lesson 78: Zambori Lace

Lesson 79: Irish Lace

Lesson 80: Lace with Gold Thread

Lesson 81: Insertion of Szepes Bone Lace

Lesson 82: Kis Koros Bone Lace Insertion

Lesson 83: Rooniok Lace Edging

Lesson 84: Cobweb Lace

Lesson 85: Macramé Prince Weave

Lesson 86: Fancy Lace and Embroidery Points

Lesson 87: Fancy Embroidery for Dresses

Lesson 88: Embroidery with Mercerized Embroidery Cotton

Lesson 89: Embroidery with Metallic Cord

Lesson 90: Imitation Tapestry

Lesson 91: Embroidery on Leather

Lesson 92: Bengal Lace

Lesson 93: Crochet Points

Lesson 94: Medallions

Lesson 95: Mirecourt Bone Lace Edging

Lesson 96: Fancy Work on Raffia Straw

Lesson 97: Imitation Embossed Velvet

Lesson 98: Sculpture Reproduction

Lesson 99: Embroidery on Wood

Lesson 100: Smyrna Rug

Fifth Course of Study
Lesson 101: Combination

Lesson 102: Bed Spread

Lesson 103: Bed Sheet

Lesson 104: Table Cover

Lesson 105: Boudoir Doll Lamp

Lesson 106: White Lace Cushion

Lesson 107: Altar Cloth

Lesson 108: Table Runner

Lesson 109: Kimono

Lesson 110: Towel

Lesson 111: Tea Cozy

Lesson 112: Tray Cloth

Lesson 113: Fancy Box

Lesson 114: Window Panel

Lesson 115: Runner for Dresser

Lesson 116: Lamp Shade

Lesson 117: Handkerchief Case

Lesson 118: Picture

Lesson 119: Curtains

Lesson 120: Parasol

Lesson 121: Sofa Cushions – Embroidered in Colors

Lesson 122: Slippers and Bag

Lesson 123: Baby Dress and Cap

Lesson 124: Imitation Pen and Ink Drawing

Lesson 125: Amphora

Recapitulation of Points

Names and Expressions of Common Usage

The later edition may clearly be seen to have many more topics, cover a greater variety of laces and give a greater number of projects than the earlier book and is in all respects a more detailed volume. In my opinion it is also heavier going. The earlier edition is written in a much more accessible fashion and really does give a full and adequate grounding in all the necessary skills for this type of work. It is freely available to view or download here: http://archive.org/details/singerinstructio00sing .

I have not found an online version of the later title and assume that it is therefore still under copyright. This does however make it difficult for the reader to evaluate and compare the two books and decide whether he needs the later version and this is largely why I am writing this review of it.

The 1941 volume in particular does not give much by way of instruction; as well as referring back to previous lessons much is left to the common sense (and prior experience) of the reader when interpreting the directions. Each lesson is concise but includes good, large photographs, usually in colour and an indication of the weight and type of thread, the size of the needle, the respective tensions top and bottom and a suggestion of fabric and use.

Amongst some of the more novel approaches include using a crochet hook, overlaid with coloured wool down which is sewn a line of stitching to produce a line of loops, which may be either cut or left loopy. A similar technique uses a pair of large needles and a finer thread to provide an attractive, barred infill. Much use is made of cording and padding and the overriding impression is that labour saving as the machine doubtless is, none of these effects are achieved quickly – apart from the need for much practice in controlling the co-ordination of eye, hand, hoop and machine speed there is also the sheer patience required to produce this work in any great quantity, especially the hemstitching, ladder work and laces. Art embroidery it certainly is; it could definitely never be considered commercial!

So, would I recommend the later edition over the earlier one? Yes, I honestly think I would. It provides a fascinating insight into a surprising range of effects which can be achieved and even if I cannot see many people wishing to try each and every topic there is enough here to give most seamstresses some new ideas and some new stitches to try.

I will try to include here some of the more useful points to be gleaned, including a brief explanation of the terms and subjects which I (and I suppose others) have found it difficult to find information on online. I have only given a brief review of the laces and how they appear to be made as they are difficult to describe in any meaningful detail without including the photographs which copyright currently prevents me from including in any appreciable quantity.

Table of Stitches Per Half Inch Showing Suitable Threads and Needles
Embroidery Thread No.

Needle No.

Stitches Per Half Inch

Bobbin

Needle

Old No.

New No.

16

20

20

30

30

40

40

60

60

80

80

100

20

20

30

30

40

40

60

60

80

80

100

100

½

½

½

½

B

B

0

0

00

00

000

000

14

14

14

14

11

11

9

9

8

8

7

7

6

7

9

11

13

14

16

18

19

20

21

23

Sewing Thread No.

Needle No.

Stitches Per Half Inch

Old No.

New No.

120

120

0

9

9

150

150

00

8

10

200

200

00

8

11

Sewing Silk No.

Needle No.

Stitches Per Half Inch

Old No.

New No.

00

000

0000

00

000

0000

0

0

00

9

9

8

10

11

13

A Brief Description of Each Chapter:

Lesson 1: First Stitches

The fabric is hooped for these exercises and the stitch length set to zero so the stitches must be judged and placed merely by use of the eye and the hands moving the hoop. Emphasis is made of the necessity of gaining a good control of the machine in speed, starting and stopping and an exercise set in which the sewer should practice zigzagging, attempting each time to stop in line with the previous zig. The fabric is not pivoted around the needle; rather the user moves the hoop backwards or forwards depending on which direction the stitches are to go. A second exercise involves sewing between parallel lines, in what may be described as a square-ended zig zag and this further hones the user’s skill in stopping neatly on a predefined point.

Lesson 2: Cording

Cording is an important skill to master as so many of the following lessons depend upon it. In short, cording involves stitching a small, close satin stitch over a filler thread so that the result is a raised, 3D satin stitch. The same skills are used for raised embroidery and monogramming as well as some of the fancy stitches used on white goods. The fabric is again hooped and the hoop moved slowly and carefully left and right so that the stitches are formed equally and neatly to cover the filler. The filler is often a couple of strands of darning cotton and is secured by a couple of small stitches before being folded back on itself and stitched over by the beginning of the satin stitching. The filler thread is held in the left hand between the index finger and thumb and is held out just in front of the needle while the other fingers help to hold and move the hoop.

Lesson 3: English or Eyelet Embroidery

Most people will be familiar with this as Broiderie Anglaise. The design is marked out on the fabric and a thin outline of small stitches made around each shape. This is then reinforced by further stitching before the centres are carefully cut out and the edges corded. If the holes are small, a stiletto may be used instead of cutting.

Lesson 4: First Openwork Stitches

Openwork is akin to forming delicate, thread spiders’ webs with rows of parallel stitching spanning thin air from one side of the aperture to the other and then infilled either with further lines running at angles across these, running around over the joins in a circular motion or a combination of both.

Lesson 5: Richelieu Work (Cut Work)

This type of work is a cross between openwork and Broiderie Anglaise as it involves the cutting and cording of shapes but includes the formation of thread bridges across the apertures.

Lessons 6-7: Hemstitching

Threads are drawn lengthwise and are then sewn over and drawn together in bunches by the machine stitch. Further stitches are taken sideways into and back from the adjacent fabric to form a secure edge to the hemstitching and the work proceeds in this fashion to the end of the hemstitching. The lesson also covers fancier and more complex patterns of hemstitching. As the stitch length and thread bundles must each be judged by eye it strikes me that this is a laborious task and is best undertaken by those whose excellent eyesight is matched by their dexterity and skill with a machine.

Lesson 8: Scalloping and Raised Embroidery – Satin Stitch

These all use the same skills as were learned in the cording chapter, namely the overstitching of a filler thread only in the case of scallops and raised embroidery the stitches are shaped and in some cases include further cording to define their edges.

Lesson 9: Letters and Monograms

Yet further development of satin stitch, using all manner of curves, angles, swelling and tapering of shapes together with small, corded holes akin to those described in Broiderie Anglaise.

Lessons 10-11: Fancy Stitches on White Goods

Describing a number of small, regular stitches used as decorative infill. The stitches are not named individually but are referred to collectively as “fancy stitches”. They are all worked in symmetrical bands, bars or blocks so that they work to create a regular pattern across a defined area (for example, a petal).

Lesson 12: Appliqué on Net

Fine fabric such as organdie used in combination with a fine net, with raised embroidery and cording used to secure the edges of the chosen motifs and provide definition thereto.

Lesson 13: English Lace – Braid Appliqué

Similar to Richelieu but using also a narrow braided lace to define the edges and some of the inner shapes. Thread ladders bridge the gaps between the braid and the fabric and the overall effect is similar to the stone tracery and glazing of a stained glass window in a cathedral.

Lesson 14: Brussels Lace

A combination of lace motifs applied to a background net and fine cording applied thereto.

Lesson 15: Filet Lace

Often used as lace curtains this is a lace formed on a net with a large, square aperture across which are worked parallel lines of thread work to form a pattern, a bit like pencilling in squares on graph paper when developing a design for knitting or cross stitch.

Lesson 16: Milan Lace

A complex lace which uses a tracery of braid created by cross-filling between lines of parallel stitching and then provides bridging of small pairs of parallel thread bars each with small pairs of corded picots running perpendicular to the main bars.

Lesson 17: Bone Lace First Appliqué

Similar to Milan lace but more delicate and with shaped, rather than parallel lines of stitching forming the braided tracery.

Lesson 18: Embroidery on Net

Another lesson in which the stitches are not named individually but wherein they are merely applied to form pleasing patterns on the net background.

Lessons 19-20: Needlepoint Lace & Venetian Richelieu Lace

Needlepoint lace involves cutwork, bridging bars and then drawing small bundles of threads together and stitching over them to form a decorative, open meshwork from the background fabric. Venetian Richelieu lace involves the creation of the same open meshwork but without being in connection with cutwork. The two types are often used together though.

Lesson 21: Smyrna Embroidery

This gives a pleasing, flocked finish and is best worked on a fairly heavy background fabric. The design is transferred to the fabric by sketching it out on thin paper, laying this over the fabric, sewing through both along the lines of the design and then tearing away the paper to leave the stitched guide lines. The design is worked in knitting wool held slightly aloft over a crochet hook whilst the resultant loops are machined down. Once completed, the loops are cut through and trimmed down to form a neat, thick pile like a carpet.

Lessons 22-23: Venetian Lace – First Stitches

A very pretty lace consisting of small, decorative stitches, all repetitive but of slightly different form, used as filler upon the background fabric. The various motifs are divided by cutwork and corded bridging.

Lessons 24-25: Shaded Embroidery

This lesson best imitates the long and short stitches used in hand embroidery to provide the sheen and subtle shading typically used when creating embroidered flowers and leaves. The stitch used is called silk stitch and is made with two stitches forwards and one back.

Lesson 26: Teneriffe Wheels

This is a complex design the basis of which resembles spokes in a wheel. The spokes are then spanned by further machine stitching, forming a delicate pattern.

Lesson 27-28: Mexican Drawn Work

Similar to Teneriffe Wheels but worked in squared blocks as a repetitive design.

Lesson 29: Hedebo Embroidery

A delightful embroidery, sturdy in construction yet delicate. It is a small-scale cutwork worked in small shapes – leaves, petals, circles, diamonds and lozenges as the fancy takes. The shapes are then infilled with a combination of bars, ladder work and picots.

Lesson 30: Velvet Appliqué

The design is sketched in on thin paper which is then laid over the appliqué layer (velvet) and the background fabric. Sew through all layers following the lines of the design and then tear away the paper leaving the velvet sewn on to the backing fabric. The excess velvet is then carefully cut away and the raw edges corded.

Lesson 31: Battenberg Embroidery

A pretty embroidery using cutwork and cording together with satin stitch and bridge work to span the spaces.

Lesson 32: Appliqué of Cretonne

This involves the application and embellishment of coloured shapes such as flower clusters, cut from a patterned fabric and sewn on to netting. The edges are sewn using the shaded embroidery technique and other points such as stamens, leaf ribs and inner petal edges may be picked out similarly.

Lesson 33: Blond Lace

Somewhat against what the name suggests, the example given is of a black lace worked on a black net and is formed by stitching the outlines in machine stitching, cording them and infilling in different densities so as to give a sense of variable transparency.

Lesson 34: Valenciennes Lace

A very dainty lace worked on a fine, round mesh net and formed from fine, transparent infills and delicate cording, with minimal cutwork, the overall effect being of great delicacy.

Lesson 35: Cluny Lace

Another lace worked on small, round meshed net. The shapes and cording are much larger and heavier than Valenciennes as are the areas of cutwork.

Lesson 36: Fancy Lace

An exceedingly dainty lace again worked on small, round meshed net. Organdie is used as an infill together with tiny stitch patterns and a network of interlaced picots.

Lessons 37-38: English Point Lace

Extremely similar to the Fancy Lace described above.

Lessons 39-40: Artistic Embroidery on White Goods

Quite a heavy finish of satin stitching in combination with intricate latticework similar to the fancier types of hemstitching and Mexican drawn work.

Lessons 41-42: Renaissance Lace

Shapes bordered by braid are then filled with complex latticework. Cutwork and laddering joins the shapes together.

Lessons 43-44: Fancy Embroidery Points on White Goods

A very time-consuming confection of small and elaborate infills and counted threads.

Lesson 45: Bone Lace – Insertions

Very simple and pleasing but delicate. Very open cutwork joined by long and slender bars and occasional picots adding interest.

Lesson 46: Fancy Lace Edging

Another time consuming work which looks very fragile and difficult to keep nice. A large square trellis is formed within the fabric and the edges corded. The squares are then worked individually, acting as frames within which is suspended further tiny spiders webs of intricate thread work. Some of the squares are in themselves cut away to form larger squares which are then spanned by daisy-type wheels of cording. Pretty but I would think tricky and time consuming.

Lesson 47: Bead Work

The beads are threaded onto a long thread of silk the same colour as the beads being sewn. This string of beads is then laid along the line of the design, a stitch being taken across the thread between each bead.

Lesson 48: Rococo Embroidery

This is embroidery using ribbon turned and stitched down to form flowers, leaves and festoons.

Lesson 49: Venetian Embroidery

Very pretty embroidery worked in neat bars of clearly defined colour blocks, shaded from light at the outer edges to dark at the centre. The centres of the flowers are formed by loops made in the same way as for Smyrna embroidery but left untrimmed.

Lesson 50: Imitation Velvet Embroidery

Worked in a similar way to Smyrna embroidery but with twin needles used in place of the crochet hook and without raising them. The needles are used like filler cords. Sew across the first of the needles as for cording. Then place the second needle alongside it and “cord” this one too. This will give you two parallel rows of satin stitch. Now draw out the first needle, lay it alongside the second one and cord over it. Repeat all the way to end of the motif to be filled. When the rows are all complete, carefully cut open the satin stitched rows. The result is like shaded corduroy.

Lesson 51: Crochet Lace

Uses a picot braid and openwork bridges and wheels.

Lessons 52-53: Duchess Lace

Very pretty and delicate, worked with a variety of dainty infills and picots on a small, round meshed net.

Lesson 54: Bruges Lace

One of my favourites. Worked on a small, round mesh. Delicate lace motifs are applied to the net background and are enhanced by cutwork, dainty ladders and picots.

Lessons 55-56: Spanish Point Lace

Quite a haphazard looking lace, worked with large areas of cutwork and very thin, insubstantial-looking ladders.

Lessons 57-58: Genoese Net

Similar to Fancy Lace Edging, worked on a large mesh made from threads worked across a large aperture within the body of the fabric.

Lesson 59: Malta Lace

A very pretty and well-balanced lace, worked with stitchwork similar to Bone Lace and much use of cording.

Lesson 60: Bone Lace Edging

Similar to Malta lace but with picots.

Lesson 61: Guipiur Lace

Another of my favourites, this is a complex lace worked entirely across meshes and ladders formed by machine stitches. Much use of satin stitches and picots and extremely pretty.

Lesson 62: Venetian Lace

Similar to Guipur but with some of the background fabric retained, albeit worked, within the pattern

Lessons 63-64: Venetian Lace Faces and Figures

The same principles apply as above but the application is to create not a pattern but an object such as the face or the heron used as examples here.

Lesson 65: Cross Stitch

A small-meshed canvas is laid over the main fabric to act as a guide and the cross stitches are worked across both.

Lesson 66: Raised Embroidery on Mesh

Worked within an aperture of the main fabric, the mesh is created by parallel rows of stitched threads sewn perpendicular to one another to form a mesh of the required size. The pattern in then worked in satin stitch across this mesh. When working the pattern, the mesh is sandwiched between a layer of Organdie on top (on which the pattern is traced) and behind by a sheet of transparent paper which is afterwards torn away. The excess organdie is carefully cut away after the filling has been prepared so that the edges may be neatly contained by the satin stitches.

Lesson 67-68: Embroidery with Gold or Silver Thread and Persian Embroidery

The metallic thread is used on the bobbin and the work done face downwards. For Persian embroidery, the work is set the right way up again. Several different threads of different colours are wound together onto the bobbin and the bobbin tension substantially loosened to accommodate them. The top thread may match any of the colours used in the bobbin and the tension set sufficiently tight to pull through the lower threads into an attractive loop. The example in the book shows the goldwork used as a broad border around a colourful infill of Persian embroidery and the effect is most pleasing, giving the same effect as aurora borealis beads.

Lesson 69: Chinese Embroidery

Similar to Venetian embroidery except that the bars of colours are shaped to follow the contours of the petals.

Lesson 70: Wool Embroidery on Net

Worked on a mesh with wool wound in the bobbin and a matching silk on the top. Worked (and the meshes made) according to the instructions given in the book for Italian Filet.

Lesson 71: Artistic Shaded Embroidery

This is a free-hand style where a machine stitch is used to sketch an outline rather than shade the whole. The same stitch is used as for Shaded Embroidery.

Lesson 72: Granite Stitch – Round Stitch

This is a true freestyle stitch where the stitch is fashioned in tiny undulations or loops to form a tiny and very subtle form of shading and infill. The effect is similar to miniscule French knots and the degree of subtlety makes this most suitable for still life studies as well as those where a subtle graduation of colours and shapes is required.

Lesson 73: Penelope Embroidery

Uses a decorative braid called Penelope Braid to make an attractive, looped finish to a group of aster-like flowers. The braid resembles fagotting or a soft, picot braid.

Lesson 74: Shaded Embroidery on Velvet or Plush

The work is sandwiched between twin layers of organdie, the top layer bearing the design and the bottom purely for reinforcement. Once the layers are sewn through and the outlines reinforced by a second row of stitches the excess organdie is cut away from the top layer. The method of working is the same as for Shaded Embroidery given in an earlier lesson.

Lesson 75: Italian Filet

Worked on a mesh, this embroidery uses coloured infill within the mesh squares to form an attractive pattern.

Lesson 76: Frivolite Lace

Delicate cartwheels of picots joined across a central aperture within the background fabric.

Lesson 77: English Lace, Making the Braid

An alternative method wherein the braid is not laid on but is made as part of the design.

Lesson 78: Zambori Lace

A very pretty and substantial looking lace using a similar method of braid making to that given in lesson 77 above.

Lesson 79: Irish Lace

Another of my favourites. Substantial and three-dimensional lace made by building layers of petals and motifs upon a background of picots.

Lesson 80: Lace with Gold Thread

An intricate lace made with closely spaced parallel bars and gold thread used as accents and infill.

Lesson 81: Insertion of Szepes Bone Lace

A pretty and substantial insertion with cording and drawn thread work.

Lesson 82: Kis Koros Bone Lace Insertion

Pretty and substantial, using a lot of worked infill and twin rows of parallel bridging with picots.

Lesson 83: Rooniok Lace Edging

Openwork edged with an elaborately wrought braiding of closely spaced parallel thread work worked over with stitching and corded rows to form a semblance of braid.

Lesson 84: Cobweb Lace

A beautiful and dainty lace which is exactly as the name suggests.

Lesson 85: Macramé Prince Weave

Anyone who lived through the 1970s will be perfectly familiar with Macramé but this one differs. It is wrought across a corded aperture along the length of which have been created groups of parallel ‘warp’ threads of macramé thread. The ‘weft’ is created by a macramé thread which is stitched across to create the pattern.

Lesson 86: Fancy Lace and Embroidery Points

Nothing new in the stitch patterns featured but needing a higher degree of skill. The tiny, repetitive filler stitches are made with raised embroidery and cording on a very fine scale.

Lesson 87: Fancy Embroidery for Dresses

Two methods are described: the stitching of leather appliqué and the use of a machine stitch similar to blanket stitch, worked in wool and providing a decorative outline.

Lesson 88: Embroidery with Mercerized Embroidery Cotton

Worked wrong way up and with mercerized cotton embroidery thread in the bobbin. Worked on canvas with organdie to stabilize.

Lesson 89: Embroidery with Metallic Cord

Quite a fiddly lesson which teaches by what method may be achieved a finish resembling that often seen on military insignia. The method involves winding strands of plain and metallic cords, by hand, around the upper thread, beyond where it leaves the needles eye, laying it across the area to be worked and then securing the end of the cords in place by a couple of small machine stitches. The next row is done with further strands of the cords wound around the upper thread and the process repeated.

Lesson 90: Imitation Tapestry

Using canvas as a base, the machine is used to make a series of stitches worked diagonally across the threads.

Lesson 91: Embroidery on Leather

No mention is made of the use of a special needle but organdie is used behind the work to stabilise it and the work hooped. The same stitches (two forward, one back) are used as for Shaded Embroidery. A second method is shown which involves laying on, and overstitching pieces of wool which may afterwards be carded to give a three-dimensional and fluffy finish.

Lesson 92: Bengal Lace

This is a very pretty and colourful lace. Shaded bars of colour follow the contours of the motif; there are heavily corded borders and colourful ladder work for the bars.

Lesson 93: Crochet Points

Diagonal thread bars use a crochet hook to make a little looped picot at each change of direction.

Lesson 94: Medallions

These may best be described as embroidered “miniatures” as being contained within a small, black, oval frame is the only feature they have in common. Granite stitch and silk stitch are the best suited for this, scaled accordingly.

Lesson 95: Mirecourt Bone Lace Edging

A combination of several different skills and effects – bone lace, decorative thread work and cording.

Lesson 96: Fancy Work on Raffia Straw

The raffia is laid across and stitched down at the ends of each section, according to the shape of the pattern.

Lesson 97: Imitation Embossed Velvet

An interesting and labour-intensive method of creating a raised pile in the embroidery. As well as the main fabric, two layers of organdie are required, one of which bears the design to be wrought and also as many layers of scrim and interlining as are needed to build up a layer the same thickness as the required depth of the velvet pile. Perhaps needless to say, the more layers the deeper the resulting pile; the example uses twenty. Place the plain layer of organdie behind the main fabric to act as a stabilizer. Then add as many layers of scrim and interlining as are required and finally place on top the organdie on which the pattern is traced. The book makes no mention of basting the layers together before proceeding; I leave this decision to the reader. Silk is used as the top thread. With the top tension naturally loosened significantly the pattern is followed and entirely infilled with lines of machine stitches placed as closely as possible to one another so that they form a dense pile. Once the stitching is completed a solution of “mucilage” is applied to the back of the organdie which has been placed behind the main fabric and left to dry. I would suggest PVA glue might be an acceptable modern equivalent. The reason for this is presumably to anchor the back of the threads as securely as possible so they are less likely to draw free when cut. Once the mucilage is dry, turn the work over and with a very sharp knife (scalpel or razor blade, perhaps) begin to carefully scrape the lines of stitching over the top layer of organdie. This should sever the stitches and allow the organdie and layers of padding to be removed one by one until the main fabric is revealed, complete with its luxurious pattern of silk pile.

Lesson 98: Sculpture Reproduction

This is really just a project example of stitches already learned. This is a small, long-necked amphora made in shaded and padded embroidery in such a way as to look three dimensional. It is then carefully cut out and applied to a backing cloth whereon it is supplemented by a corded handle stitched directly onto the backing cloth.

Lesson 99: Embroidery on Wood

A fanciful notion, this is simple shaded embroidery worked on thin wood veneer which has been reinforced by two layers of organdie applied behind it, each in opposite directions for maximum support. No special needle is needed; merely a very fine one. Size 9 is suggested in this example. The wood is suggested to be no more than 1/25″ thick.

Lesson 100: Smyrna Rug

The same method is used as for Smyrna embroidery but upon canvas.

The remaining lessons are merely photographs of items made using the skills learned in the previous lessons. No instruction is given as to their making; merely a mention of the stitches or techniques used so I have decided that nothing useful can be added by covering those.