Singer 431G Slant Shank Sewing Machine

The Singer 431G has been on my wish list for quite a few years now.  I patiently waited for one to come within reach and finally managed to secure one for a decent price and at a distance possible for me to collect it in person.  I took a bit of a chance with it as I didn’t manage to find out what accessories and plates were included before hitting the “Buy” button but I was lucky.  The only thing missing is the straight stitch plate but as I have many dedicated straight stitch machines, I don’t mind that.  The general (zig zag) stitch plate will work just as well and I do of course have a LOT of options when it comes to sewing a straight stitch on fabrics that require the smaller needle hole.  Of much more importance to me is that the chain stitch plate is present, which it is, together with the general plate and two cover plates and a full set of feet, cams and bobbins.

feet

I always give new arrivals a thorough clean and service and removing the needle plate I discovered the ‘achilles heel’ of these machines: that is the fragility of the clamping pins over which the plates fit.  These are a mushroom-domed pin, cut vertically down in quarters, which allows the pin to squeeze together a bit when the plate is passing over it. I managed to snap off one quarter when I was lifting the needle plate free.

clamping pins

The complete, unbroken one is shown above left and right.  The broken on is shown at the bottom, together with two views of the broken piece to the right of the photo.

I doubt it can easily be fixed; it is too small to drill and pin and glue would not be sufficiently resilient to the constant strain of having plates squeezed over and prised off it repeatedly.  I shall just have to be careful not to dislodge any more.  It seems to hold absolutely fine with three quarters of the pin and a quick Google search shows me that this is a common problem.  If sufficient sections come free as to make it unusable I shall simply drill out the stumps and tap in a straight pin of correct dimensions to fit the holes in the needle plate or else tap in a threaded insert and use some ordinary needle plate screws.

Researching this machine before bidding, I found very little.  I’m not particularly surprised by this as what I did find out was that they had a very limited production run in the early 1960s.  I can’t find a serial number on her at all…I’ll continue to look but I’ve searched all the usual places.

Those of you who are familiar with my machine reviews will know how much importance I place on facts and figures so here follows some definitive data about the serial numbers of the accessories and plates which came with my machine.  I can’t guarantee that all of them are original but the plates all fit and so do the feet.

  • Chainstitch needle plate:                    Singer 503601
  • General (Zigzag) needle plate:          Singer 503583
  • Straight stitch needle plate cover:     Singer 507753
  • Zigzag needle plate cover:                 Singer 503541
  • Special purpose foot:                          Singer 161167
  • General foot:                                      Singer 172075-001
  • Button foot:                                        Singer 161168
  • Seam guide:                                        Singer 161172
  • Cording (Zipper) foot:                         Singer 161166
  • Narrow hemmer:                                Singer 161195
  • Multi-slot binder:                                Singer 161420
  • Ruffler:                                                Singer 161581
  • Straight stitch foot:                            Singer 170071-001
  • Darning foot:                                       Singer 161596
  • Five black top hat’ cams numbered 1-5.
  • 4 type 66 metal bobbins.
  • 1 small screwdriver
  • Small tube of Singer oil.

This is a composite photo of the chainstitch plate.  Its serial number is 503601.  I show it from three different angles – side, top and bottom, with the bottom photographed twice to show the range of motion in the swivelling piece that forms the chain stitch.

chain stitch plate

This photo shows the chainstitch.  It is beautifully formed and not difficult to do.

chain stitch

The bobbin is removed and the upper thread passed through the extra tension hook that is immediately left of the takeup lever.

chain stitch thread guide

I loosened the tension and used a stitch length of around 8 stitches per inch.  Using a longer stitch length increased the likelihood of dropped stitches, as did a hesitation in pace whilst sewing.

The thread I used was just a cheap polyester but I was nevertheless impressed with the results and look forward to experimenting further with this as it was indeed the primary reason I wanted this machine.

I will scan and publish a full version of the manual when time permits but in the meantime, here follow the pages relating to the chainstitching:

P19

P20

P21

P22

P23P24

The top hat cams are the old style ones with two apertures in the brim.  I am indebted to Barbara at Oldsewingear for her excellent blog post explaining the differences here: http://www.oldsewingear.com/blog/which-disc-is-which.  I can confirm her advice that the 431 takes the ones she describes as Type 1.

primary patterns

These cams supplement the primary stitch patterns which are built into the existing, metal cam stack which sits below the area where the plastic cams may be fitted.  The patterns are shown under the lid but further fine-tuning may be done using the stitch length too.

The manual advises to use the ‘Special Purpose Foot’ for these stitches as the raised area below the foot allows room for the depth of the satin stitches.

special foot

I do not presently have a straight stitch needle plate.  I believe that its serial number may be 503582 but have no way of checking this.  If any of you have one and can check it, please let me know.

I must draw attention to the fact that the lettering “AK3” appears on the top of the chainstitch plate as well as the straight stitch one so if you are seeking one or the other, do check that you are buying the correct one.  The best and easiest way to tell them apart is that the chainstitch plate has a slightly oval needle hole and more notably a pivoting bar underneath that helps form the chainstitch.

Another common confusion that has come forwards in my research is the subject of replacement needle plates and whether the superficially similar T&S plates are compatible.

Instinct is telling me that I can see enough differences to make it unlikely that the T&S ones could be substituted but I can’t say for certain unless one came into my possession so that I could try it.  Helen Howes (my favourite UK supplier) has several on her webpage and I can spot four main differences straight away, some obvious and others less so.

The 431 zigzag plate and the cover plates all have a rectangular area cut away on the underside, with a further two corners cut away further so that the base of the sides flared out at 45 degrees.  Lining it up with the feed and the bobbin case I can’t see any reasons for this but I nevertheless can’t ignore it as possibly relevant for the plate to fit.

This photo shows the zigzag and straight stitch cover plates, both front and back.

zigzag and straight stitch cover plates

This photo shows the area cut away from the underside of the bobbin plate.

bobbin plate underside

Some of the plates for the T&S have measurements scored both sides of the needle hole.  The 431 plates have measurements scored on the right hand side only, as shown here in this photograph of the general (zigzag) plate.

general (zigzag) plate

This photo shows the bobbin and needle plate together, top and bottom, showing how the two plates fit together.  At the bottom of the photo, the underside of the needle plate is juxtaposed with the area which is covered by it.

plate shapes

Where the needle plate meets the bobbin plate, the curved sides of the 431 plates reduce width through a 90 degree turn.  This edge is smooth.  Some of the T&S plates are shaped similarly but have an extra piece of metal running below the edge of the bobbin plate, perhaps to improve the fit.  I would be cautious of assuming that these extra pieces would marry up ok with a bobbin cover not designed to be used with it.

The holes for the clamping pins may be in a slightly different position; it is hard to tell.  The back of the feed dog holes on the 431 plates looks as if it is slightly closer to the back edge of the plate than on the T&S plates.  On the 431, the distance between the rows of feed teeth looks to be the same as between the feed and the back of the plate.  Measuring confirms it – the distance is 2mm in both cases.  These distances don’t look equal on the T&S plate.

plate dimensions

Because it is impossible to accurately gauge size from photos, I have also measured the zigzag plate.  It is 63 x 30mm.  Mine has obviously suffered a bad needle strike in the past and I shall certainly replace it if I ever get the chance but as spares are rare, I’m not holding my breath for that…

The feet and accessories are all generic slant shank ones that I think will be able to be shared between any other slant shank machines.

The machine itself was in excellent cosmetic condition and did not need a great deal of cleaning.  Despite this, I have taken all of her plates off and removed a great deal of fluff and a couple of needles from the base of the free arm.  I was very happy to see how easily this may be cleaned out.  The whole bottom of the free arm casing is a single piece, held in position by one bolt so it is very easy to access this area to clean and service it.  The hook and bobbin case look at though they would benefit from a more thorough cleaning than I have been able to do so far but as I am unfamiliar with this style of bobbin and hook I will wait until I have educated myself a little further before attempting this.

The machine is now clean, oiled and ready to use.  That said, I intend to run her in gently.   It is certainly a good few years since she was last used and she has spent the last six months in a garage.  Once I have properly run her through her paces I will report back with a post relating to performance, its neatness and quietness and how well she compares with my other machines.

I have not weighed her, but she is made from aluminium so whilst solid, is lighter than my cast iron machines and also lighter than my Bernina 830 Record, although similar in size.  The extension bed is much easier to remove than the one on my Featherweight 222k. It is released by pressing a small button on the machine bed, close to the rear of the machine pillar and slides back on again very easily.  The accessories are stored beneath an aluminium lid in the extension bed which opens up to reveal the compartment within, with space for the cams, oil, feet and attachments.  The motor is housed vertically within the pillar and is easily accessed by removing the single bolt which secures the oil pan below.  All in all it is very sturdily made and I am impressed.

 

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Calibrating the Tension Assembly on a Vintage Singer 201k or 222k

If you find that your machine is not producing a perfectly tensioned lockstitch on a double layer of medium-weight cotton fabric and a tension of around 4.5, then you need to calibrate the tension assembly so that it does. 

This process is both simple and quick and requires no tools apart from a fingernail.  It is not necessary to take the whole thing apart, just nudge part of the assembly around a little.  The following photos show the procedure conducted on a Singer 222k although I have also recently made exactly the same adjustment on my main machine, the 201k.

Push back against the numbered ring on the tension assembly and you will find that it is springy.  Push it back hard, away from the front thumb-screw part of the assembly and you will see – look carefully because this part of the assembly is black – that there are a number of holes drilled into the front of the dial plate.  In front of this is a small, bright metal pin which, when slotted into one of these holes, allows the numbered dial to rotate as one with the thumb screw.

Because it is possible to slot this pin into any of the holes in the dial rim the tension can read just about anything so what we need to aim for is to get one full rotation of the dial within the maximum (tightest) and minimum (loosest) setting of the thumb screw.  In other words, when the thumb screw is screwed down tight it should read close to 9 and when it is screwed out as loose as it will go it should read close to 0 but don’t worry if it isn’t exact – as long as you can fully tighten and loosen the screw this is fine.

Just keep nudging the numbered dial back with your thumbnail and moving the pin around one hole at a time until you’re happy. 

Tension Dial, pushed back to show calibration holes.

Thumb screw showing the pin which slots in to the calibration holes.

Use your thumb to nudge the numbered dial around so that the pin engages with the next hole along from the present one.

Dial fully loosened (see how the end of the tension pin is flush with the end of the thumb screw)

Dial fully tightened (see how the end of the tension pin is below the end of the thumb screw)

 All content copyright HA Lewington 2010.

In Praise of Vintage

..and why I hate many modern ones. 

It seems that at least twice a week I see a new reason to be grateful for my vintage machines. 

While I wait for my infant offspring to grow large enough to attend pre-school and allow me some regular sewing time I am feeding my habit by being a regular contributor on a sewing machine forum.  The cries for help are both frequent and worrying – it’s not the questions that alarm me, but the validity of the answers. 

Things which ought never to be a problem somehow are and that makes me so annoyed on behalf of their owners because I see a host of sad sewing machine owners, many of them new to their hobby, ending up so subjugated by their tetchy machines that they spend more time trying to appease them than use them. 

This in turn can prove to be such a disincentive that the sewer is forced out of their interest by the downright tetchiness of their wretched machine.  In their modesty they are much quicker to blame themselves and their own inexperience than their machine – even when we the more experienced sewers see otherwise. 

Even if it is their fault, it’s usually a small and honest mistake which any decent machine would forgive and get on with instead of hurling itself into a hissy fit of thread knots before breaking the needle, pinging the broken piece up into your eye before burying its own down into the depths of the bobbin case which jams it up entirely, lassoes the thread around the hook, pieces of which thread penetrate the most unfathomable crevices and just as a finale, throws the timing out.*

* Ok, maybe my imagination is running a little wild here but not by much.

I often finish a piece of advice with the semi-playful observation that I am now going to go and stroke and kiss my lovely machines (inferring that they are delightfully trouble-free, which is true; they are). 

Sewing machines have just become too complicated for anyone’s good…apart from the manufacturers who use all of this extra fuss to bamboozle us into believing that they are in some way worth their eye-wateringly high price tags.  Now I’m not against paying high prices – the early sewing machines often cost many months and in some cases years’ wages – but unlike their modern equivalents these old ones were made to last and had a beautiful lockstitch – surely the most basic of all sewing requirements – so is it really so unreasonable for me to expect you, the manufacturer to please give me that before you start baffling me with all this faff and gadgetry?

I get really annoyed on new sewers’ behalf that so many of them will never have sewn on a machine with a decent lockstitch and so don’t even know what they’re missing. 

I…want…to…sew.  I’ve enjoyed a very rewarding career in computers, thanks and I don’t need or indeed want to revisit that with my sewing; especially as I don’t have, as I had then, a talented and enthusiastic team of experts giving me back-up.  I don’t want to sit there poking and squinting myopically at a touch-screen, one hand on the manual or, worse still, staring at the machine squatting in sullen unresponsive blankness and wondering whether it’s the screen that’s failed or the electrics… or finding some impenetrable error message displayed which I can’t cancel and which means I have to call the helpline only to waste 30 minutes finding that it needs a trip to the mechanic, waste another 40 minutes arranging this with the mechanic, poking around in the loft trying to find the original packaging, boxing it up and then finding and arranging a courier and then maybe waste another fourteen days waiting for it to come back fixed with a note saying there was a half micron of lint which had settled on a sensor somewhere and now I’m so terrified of getting a repeat that I barely dare use it in case I’m using the wrong thread.  So I need a second machine in case this happens again and that will cost me yet more money still and what guarantee do I have that it’ll be any better than this one…and now I’m utterly paranoid.  Why can’t I just have a machine that lets me sew?

Repeat this as a mantra and believe it:

I don’t need sensors to tell me when my bobbin thread is running low: I have eyes and I have common sense.

I don’t need automatic thread cutting: I have scissors.

If I must trade seven scruffily stitched alphabets for a decent lockstitch then so be it: I know which one I’ll use more.

I will cope without automatic threading, the decorative crocodiles and the bicycles.

I need a good, fully adjustable stitch, tension which is easy to adjust and calibrate and to use any old thread I like, top or bottom, whether it matches or not.

I can sit down at my Singers, thread them up and go.  I can set the stitch length exactly as I need it, tighten the thumb screw to the left of it and happily throw the lever up into reverse and then push it back down again, assured that it will stop in exactly the same place as it was previously set.  Now that’s cleverness I can use. 

And did I mention I have the attachments to do buttonholes and blind stitch too? 

I’m now going to go and hug my machines again.

Facelift for a Featherweight

It’s not exactly that I don’t like the striated, deco-style face plates but I’d be lying if I said I preferred them so as she is in every other respect perfect, I recently weakened and purchased a scroll-faced one for my little 222k Featherweight so she could match her big sisters, the 201ks.

Like all things to do with vintage Singers, it was extremely simple to change it: simply undo a thumbscrew and lift off.

Singer 222k old faceplate

Singer 222k new faceplate

Copyright HA Lewington 2010

Singer 222k Featherweight

This machine is perfect where space is at a premium. 9 ½ inches long (15” with the extension flap down) it can be picked up and moved with one hand, weighing only 11lb. It is made, I believe, from cast aluminium (or similar, light alloy). It packs away snugly into a very compact 14 x 10 x 8 inch case, making it very easy to transport and the hard case, leather-bound, is smart and offers excellent protection against knocks and bumps.

Because it is a low-shank, side-clamping machine it uses standard Singer feet. The 222k has a shorter distance between the face plate and the needle bed than say, a 201k (2” compared to 2 ½ “). It also features the twin thumb screw holes in the bed which allow it to use industrial attachments.

Unlike its elder sister the 221, the 222k can drop its feed dogs, allowing for free-form embroidery. The other main difference is that the 222k has a free-arm facility. The free arm circumference is an extremely dainty 7” (that of my Bernina 830 Record measures 9”) making it perfect for setting the relatively small cuffs in childrenswear.

Stitches are restricted to straight stitch only, plus reverse, but are of a quality and evenness which is scarcely seen in modern machines. Stitch length may be anything between 6 and 30 stitches per inch, with increments marked at 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20 and 30.

The bobbin is mounted vertically across the end of the machine. It is very slim, so holds less thread than a standard one.

There are two levers on the front of a 222k; one to switch between “sew” and “darn” (to drop the feed dogs) and the other to alter the stitch length with increments as previously noted. The free arm is obtained by loosening the thumb screw at the base of the pillar and gently easing the flat bed section to the left.

The standard foot pedal is the Singer button type, which is not particularly easy to control so we have, on mine, rewired the plug to a new, clam-shell foot pedal. We also replaced the main flex and checked the wiring in the motor (well ok, I say “we” – my husband did it).

The 222k uses standard, domestic needles. The harp is 5” long by 4” high. For comparison, my 201k is 8” x 5 ½ “and my Bernina 7 ¼ “x 4 ½ “). In use, the machine is both smooth and quiet. It has an extremely good lamp, mounted at the front of the machine that takes an easily sourced, low-wattage bulb.

I wouldn’t recommend the 222k for heavy, frequent use but as a machine for domestic dressmaking, general repairs and light upholstery such as piecing together patchwork then I can’t think of another machine which is so small and gives such pleasure in use. Mine dates from 1957 and I have owned it for a couple of months now.

Dimensions: 15L x 7D x 10H inches (9 ½ “L when using as free arm). Weight: 11lb (5kg).

The 222k in freearm mode, shown next to a 201k for size comparison.

Like its stable mate the 201k, the 222k gives a wonderful straight stitch, evenly tensioned and consistently formed.

Copyright HA Lewington 2010

Singer 201k, electric

Reputed to be the best machine Singer ever made, I find it hard to argue. I own three; all electric, although I suspect that one of these has been adapted to electric from being (I suspect) hand-crank. This third one also features a knee-lifter bar which the others do not. They date from 1949, 1952 and 1954 and were acquired between four months ago and last weekend.

A real workhorse, the 201k is all cast metal, a standard low-shank, side clamping machine which uses standard machine needles, bobbins and Singer feet. It has an unusually long harp, measuring 8” long by 5 ½ “high which makes it particularly sought after by quilt makers. It is a straight-stitch only machine, plus reverse. The stitch length is changed by a sliding lever on the front of the machine, with increments marked at 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20 and 30 stitches per inch. If the lever is pulled above the centre line (which is marked) the machine sews in reverse.

The 201k also features a varnished wood extension flap which neatly clips onto, and folds down from the wooden base in which the machines are housed. The machine tilts out of this base to reveal the thumbscrew which, by two possible positions, controls dropping or raising the feed dogs.

The stitch quality is exceptional; perfectly formed, even and straight. If you do a lot of top stitching, then you should be settling for nothing less than this.

Usually a fair few accessories, feet and attachments are included in the sale of these machines but spares and replacements are extremely easy to source and also very cheap. Twin screw holes in the bed also allow it to use industrial attachments such as hemmers, bias binders etc. The quality of the original, Singer attachments is exceptional and they are well worth seeking out in preference to their modern counterparts. Indeed some do not, to my knowledge, have a modern counterpart; the tuck marker being one example. The ruffler, in particular, is very smooth and not at all clattery (as I believe the modern ones sometimes are) and there are three different types of bias binder foot. There are also buttonholers and zig zag attachments available although I have read mixed reviews on their efficiency and would suggest that they (like the monogrammer attachments, for which the pattern cams are difficult to obtain) are for purists only as most of us would have a second, more modern machine with zig zag and buttonholes included.

The addition of a new, clam-shell foot pedal is an improvement as it is easier to regulate the speed than with the original, button activated one.

The Singer 201k was also manufactured as a hand-crank and a treadle. A conversion in either direction is easy, a conversion to hand crank being especially easy if the machine already possesses the larger, spoked fly wheel although hand conversion kits are hard to source in the UK they may be obtained from a US seller on e-bay. It is my intention to eventually convert one of my three into a hand-crank. There are also two distinct styles of casting. The older one is the typical, antique Singer style, black with gold decals and a large, spoked fly wheel. The newer models were much more streamlined in shape, with a smaller fly wheel and no decals. They were available in black or a pinkish tan. The end plates may differ too, being embossed either in scrollwork (which is my favourite) or else with art deco-style vertical stripes. The newer models vary only in the casting; both offer the same functionality and smooth, even stitches. It has an extremely good lamp, mounted at the rear of the machine that takes an easily sourced, low-wattage bulb and provides very good illumination at exactly the right position.

When not in use, the 201k packs away into a 21 ½ x 14 ½ x 9 ½ “ suitcase, formed of bent ply and covered in mock-crocodile ‘leather‘ with metal reinforced corners. It is certainly designed to withstand knocks although with the machine inside it you may need to engage the help of a strong man to carry it out to the car!

The 201k remains my favourite, all round sewing machine although it is very heavy indeed and therefore not easily portable. It astonishes me that they can be obtained for so little money. When I next make curtains or loose covers, of all the machines I own, this will be the one I choose for the task. It is smooth and quiet to use and like my 222k, a joy to run.

Dimensions: 20L x 8 ½D x 12H inches. Weight: about 26lb (12kg).

A 1954 cast alloy 201k and a scroll-fronted 1949 cast iron 201k, both electric.

The 201k gives a beautiful, well tensioned and accurate straight stitch.

Copyright HA Lewington 2010

Bernina 830 Record (circa 1980s)

I chose my vintage Bernina 830 Record because it offered exceptionally good value for money. It dates from around the late 1970s/early 1980s and I have had it about four months. Bought to replace my faithful, metal-bodied, 25-year-old Brother Compal Ace whose circuit board had become corrupted I had a clear view of my needs and wants but despite trying quite a few modern machines I was not satisfied with the quality of either the machine or the stitch. Even the Bernina 220 did not offer, in my opinion, the stitch quality I expected from that name so I decided to follow the vintage route and buy a Bernina whose stitch I could trust to be exceptional.

I was not disappointed. For £200 less than a new 220 and half the price of a new 1008, I got exactly what I expected: an enormously satisfying attention to detail with the build quality – smooth lever action in attaching the flatbed, a ball bearing snap-fastening for the bobbin cover and absolutely no sign of a plastic presser foot lever. There is a metal knee-lift lever too, which slots into a hole below the bottom of the pillar. The machine is mainly metal bodied; the cover for the motor (which is mounted at the back of the pillar) is plastic, as is the end plate, the fly wheel, the knobs and the section at the back holding the spool pins but in all the parts which are functional rather than decorative, this machine is cast metal which gives both longevity and stability when sewing. This machine won’t judder off the table when you’re sewing a fast seam.

Extremely intuitive to thread and to use, the controls are simple and self-explanatory. Stitch length (0-4mm) is controlled by sliding a lever on the pillar and then twisting the lever knob to secure it in position. Above this are twin dials; one for selecting the zigzag width (0-4mm) and the other for choosing the appropriate stage on the five-step button hole. There are five different needle positions (chosen via an inner knob on the zigzag dial). Tension is self-adjusting but may be manually overridden using a wheel on the top of the machine. The feed dogs are dropped by simply switching a dial at the base of the pillar. The harp measures 4 ½ “ high by 7 ¼ “ long.

As well as the usual straight zigzag and buttonhole, the 830 offers 5 utility stitches, named “overlock”, “stretch”, “universal”, “running” and “blind”. Universal and running are both a variation on a zigzag. In addition to these, there are 15 decorative satin stitches which may be worked in a continuous row or else as single motifs. There is a small window in the machine body which displays the point in the stitch cycle so one can get ready to stop when the cycle (and thus the motif) is complete. The switch between straight and decorative stitch is made by pushing a lever on the top of the machine next to which is a second lever which switches between the different pattern cams by pushing the lever to the right to release it, sliding it up or down before releasing it to spring into position alongside the appropriate pattern icon.

The stitch quality is exceptional; neat, well-formed and perfectly straight. The machine takes standard, domestic needles and as it is a zigzag machine is also capable of heirloom-style stitching using twin and also wing needles.

There is a small hole in the needle bed through which may be drawn up a cord (or gimp) for corded pintucks, and also the twin screw holes to the right of the needle which allow industrial hemmers, folders and binder attachments to be used. These give a much better finish than the foot versions and are easier to control.

On the subject of feet, the authentic ones are indeed expensive but are very good quality and it is usual for these machines to be sold with a good few feet along with it: 7 is usual; 9 a real bonus. In any case, it is possible to re-use existing feet you may possess simply by purchasing a shank adapter for about £7. This will allow you to use both screw-on and snap-on feet. I believe that both high and low shank versions are available. Care should be taken when buying new Bernina feet to be certain that those purchased are compatible with the vintage Berninas. The newer models take a different foot but a good stockist such as Bambers will always be happy to advise and offer support.

This is the machine I use for fine finishing on my baby and toddler wear garments as the stitch quality is fantastic.

Dimensions: 388L x 182W x 315H mm. Weight 20lb (9.15kg). 1200 spm. 85W motor.

 

The straight stitches on the Bernina 830 are consistently even-tensioned, well-formed and (most important of all) straight.

The range of stitches for the Bernina 830 is just right for the serious sewist.

The satin stitches are extremely nicely formed.

Copyright HA Lewington 2010

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